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Part Approval Process (PPAP) is used in the automotive supply chain for
establishing confidence in component suppliers and their production
processes. Actual measurements are taken of the parts produced and are
used to complete the various test sheets of PPAP.
Below is the list of all 19 elements, and a brief description
- Design Records
A printed copy of drawing needs to be provided. If the customer is
responsible for designing, this is a copy of customer drawing that is
sent together with the Purchase Order (PO). If supplier is responsible
for designing this is a released drawing in supplier's release system.
"Each and every feature must be “ballooned” or “road mapped” to
correspond with the inspection results (including print notes, standard
tolerance notes and specifications, and anything else relevant to the
design of the part)."
- Authorized Engineering Change (note) Documents
A document that shows the detailed description of the change. Usually
this document is called "Engineering Change Notice", but it may be
covered by the customer PO or any other engineering authorization.
- Engineering Approval
This approval is usually the Engineering trial with production parts
performed at the customer plant. A "temporary deviation" usually is
required to send parts to customer before PPAP. Customer may require
other "Engineering Approvals".
A copy of the Design Failure Mode and
Effect Analysis (DFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier
and customer. If customer is design responsible, usually customer may
not share this document with the supplier. However, the list of all
critical or high impact product characteristics should be shared with
the supplier, so they can be addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.
A copy of the Process Flow, indicating all steps and sequence in the
fabrication process, including incoming components.
A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by
supplier and customer. The PFMEA follows the Process Flow steps, and
indicates "what could go wrong" during the fabrication and assembly of
- Control Plan
A copy of the Control Plan, reviewed and signed-off by supplier and
customer. The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps, and provides more
details on how the "potential issues" are checked in the incoming
quality, assembly process or during inspections of finished products.
- Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA)
MSA usually contains the Gauge
R&R for the critical or high impact characteristics,
and a confirmation that gauges used to measure these characteristics
- Dimensional Results
A list of every dimension noted on the ballooned drawing. This list
shows the product characteristic, specification, the measurement
results and the assessment showing if this dimension is "ok" or "not
ok". Usually a minimum of 6 pieces is reported per product/process
- Records of Material / Performance Tests
A summary of every test performed on the part. This summary is usually
on a form of DVP&R (Design Verification Plan and Report), which
lists each individual test, when it was performed, the specification,
results and the assessment pass/fail. If there is an Engineering
Specification, usually it is noted on the print. The DVP&R
shall be reviewed and signed off by both customer and supplier
engineering groups. The quality engineer will look for a customer
signature on this document.
In addition, this section lists all material certifications (steel,
plastics, plating, etc.), as specified on the print. The material
certification shall show compliance to the specific call on the print.
- Initial Sample Inspection Report
The report for material samples which is initially inspected before
- Initial Process Studies
Usually this section shows all Statistical Process
Control charts affecting the most critical characteristics.
The intent is to demonstrate that critical processes have stable
variability and that is running near the intended nominal value.
- Qualified Laboratory Documentation
Copy of all laboratory certifications (e.g. A2LA, TS, NABL) of the
laboratories that performed the tests reported on section 10.
- Appearance Approval Report
A copy of the AAI (Appearance Approval Inspection) form signed by the
customer. Applicable for components affecting appearance only.
- Sample Production Parts
A sample from the same lot of initial production run. The PPAP package
usually shows a picture of the sample and where it is kept (customer or
- Master Sample
A sample signed off by customer and supplier, that usually is used to
train operators on subjective inspections such as visual or for noise.
- Checking Aids
When there are special tools for checking parts, this section shows a
picture of the tool and calibration records, including dimensional
report of the tool.
- Customer-Specific Requirements
Each customer may have specific requirements to be included on the PPAP
package. It is a good practice to ask the customer for PPAP
expectations before even quoting for a job. North America auto makers
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) requirements are listed on the
- Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
This is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package. This form
shows the reason for submission (design change, annual revalidation,
etc.) and the level of documents submitted to the customer. There is a
section that asks for "results meeting all drawing and specification
requirements: yes/no" refers to the whole package. If there is any
deviations the supplier should note on the warrant or inform that PPAP
cannot be submitted.
PPAP requirements are typically distinguished by level as
PPAP Submission Levels
– Part Submission Warrant (PSW) only submitted to the customer.
Level 2 –
PSW with product samples and limited supporting data.
Level 3 –
PSW with product samples and complete supporting data.
Level 4 –
PSW and other requirements as defined by the customer.
Level 5 –
PSW with product samples and complete supporting data available for
review at the supplier's manufacturing location.
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